You can find out more about NPF's National Medical Director, Dr. Michael S. Okun, by also visiting the NPF Center of Excellence, University of Florida Center for Movement Disorders & Neurorestoration.
Scientists from around the globe have been zeroing in on the many potential causes underlying Parkinson’s disease. Much of the modern era searching has focused on protein deposits in the brain referred to as Lewy Bodies. These non-native brain deposits were first discovered and named after the German-born neurologist Frederic Lewy in 1912. The Lewy body is known to deposit in the brainstem, and also in the cerebral cortex. The presence of Lewy bodies in the substantia nigra (black substance) deep within the brainstem region has been closely associated with the development of Parkinson’s disease, and has been felt to be one its most important hallmarks. A closer look within this important structure has revealed that there are several proteins contained inside it — including alpha-synuclein, ubiquitin, neurofilament protein, and alpha B crystalline. Occasionally, Tau protein has also been found within the Lewy body, and this has proven to be another potentially important clue; Tau protein has been closely associated with Alzheimer’s as well as other neurodegenerative conditions. Alpha-synuclein filaments and other granular material have also been observed to be directly deposited into brain cells, and these direct deposits have been referred to as Lewy neurites. Much research on the underlying causes of Parkinson’s disease has focused on alpha-synuclein misfolding, which is thought to be followed by protein aggregation, and eventual formation of a Lewy body within the brain.
In the August 14th edition of Nature, Bartels and colleagues reported important information on the shape of alpha synuclein. The authors pointed out that the shape of alpha synuclein has been described as natively “unfolded” and that it becomes a helically shaped structure when it binds to lipids (fats). A more careful analysis of alpha synuclein has revealed that its shape actually is a folded tetramer (a structure made up of four small subunits), which is not what most scientists had previously assumed. This important error in describing the native shape of alpha synuclein was thought to be due to the use of “recombinant bacterial expression protocols for in vitro studies, from overexpression, from sample heating, and/or from denaturing gels for cell culture and tissue studies.” The authors hypothesized that the order of events leading to Parkinson’s disease may thus include 1- destabilization of this helically folded tetramer, 2- misfolding of alpha-synuclein, and finally 3- formation of the Lewy body. The investigators discussed the provocative idea of stabilizing the tetramer as a way to prevent or treat Parkinson’s disease.
This recent study adds important information to our understanding of Parkinson’s disease. The findings will require replication by other groups. It will be important for scientists to observe a completely crystallized structure of alpha synuclein across many species, as well as to better understand how much of alpha-synuclein exists as a tetramer shape versus an unfolded one. Our broadening of the understanding of the shape of alpha-synuclein — both before and after it misfolds — will hopefully assist scientists and clinicians in better shaping the future of Parkinson’s disease therapeutics.
Bartels T, Choi JG, Selkoe DJ. α-Synuclein occurs physiologically as a helically folded tetramer that resists aggregation. Nature. 2011 Aug 14. doi:
10.1038/nature10324. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 21841800.
Posted: 9/1/2011 6:57:40 AM by
Browse current and archived What's Hot in PD? articles, the National Parkinson Foundation's monthly blog for people with Parkinson's written by our National Medical Director, Dr. Michael S. Okun.
Is Midlife Migraine Related to Late Life Parkinson’s Disease?
Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease: NPF Congratulates Mahlon DeLong and Alim-Louis Benabid and Looks to a Bright Future in Human Neural-Network Modulation
Everything You Need to Know About Medical Marijuana and Parkinson’s Disease
The End for Levodopa Phobia: New Study Shows Sinemet is a Safe Initial Therapy for Treatment of Parkinson's Disease
Is light therapy a potential treatment modality in Parkinson’s disease?
How does the most common genetic cause of Parkinson’s Disease (LRRK2) cause Parkinson’s disease and could it be used to help develop a better therapy?
An Update on DAT Scanning for Parkinson’s Disease Diagnosis
Could Northera (Droxidopa) Be an Alternative Treatment for Low Blood Pressure and Passing Out Symptoms?
The Dream of a Pill Free Existence and the Continuous Dopaminergic Pump for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease
Should I take Inosine to Raise my Uric Acid Levels and Treat my Parkinson’s Disease?
Could Fungus and Mold be an Important Contributor to Parkinson’s Disease?
Pimavanserin and the Hope for a Better Drug for Hallucinations and Psychosis in Parkinson’s Disease
Halting of the Creatine Study
The Importance of Identifying and Treating Caregiver Strain
Putting Parkinson’s Disease Information into the Palm of Your Hand: Parkinson’s Enters the Smartphon
What Parkinson’s Disease Patients Need to Know about H. Pylori Gastrointestinal Infections
A2A Receptor Antagonists and Parkinson’s Disease Treatment
Another Setback for Trophic Factor Treatment in Parkinson's Disease
IPX066 and What Patients Really Want in New Carbidopa/Levodopa (Sinemet) Formulations
The Weather Forecast for Parkinson’s Disease Calls for Worldwide Economic Storm
Defeating the Barriers to Implementing Exercise Regimens in Parkinson’s Disease Patients
When should you start medication therapy for Parkinson’s disease?
Neurologist Care Reduces Hospitalizations in Parkinson's Disease
A Victory in Court for Parkinson's Disease Patients who Require Ongoing Rehabilitative Therapies
Given the recent FDA announcement about Mirapex (pramipexole), should I be worried about dopamine agonists?
What about the new Parkinson’s Disease Vaccine? What should I know?
Caffeine as a Potential Treatment for Parkinson’s Disease
Time to Consider GPi DBS for Parkinson’s Disease: A Shift in the Practice of Patient Selection for DBS
A New Treatment for Parkinson’s Disease-Related Constipation
Too Many Pills: Improving Delivery Systems for Parkinson’s Disease Drugs
Measuring Quality and Assessing Depression in Parkinson's Disease
Watch out for Unexpected Obstacles if You Use a Cueing Strategy to Break Freezing of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease
Pill Color, Generic Medications and Insurance Issues: Important Medication-Related Tips for the Parkinson’s Disease Patient
Are Blood Tests for Parkinson’s Disease on the Horizon?
Placing Stem Cells in Animal Models of Parkinson’s Disease: Another Important Step
Important News for the Parkinson’s Disease Community: More Evidence that Sinemet and Madopar are Not Toxic and do Not Accelerate Disease Progression
The Case for All Parkinson’s Disease Patients to be Co-managed by a Primary Care-Neurologist Team
Scientists say Research on Brain Proteins Involved in Parkinson’s Disease is “Shaping” Up
Who Actually Takes Care of Most of the Parkinson’s Patients Worldwide: The Need for Education and the Parkinson’s Toolkit
If you are Dizzy or Passing Out, it could be Your Parkinson’s Disease or Parkinson’s Disease Medications
How Will Group Visits for Parkinson’s Disease Fit into the Future of Parkinson’s Disease Care?
Why Patients Should be Wary of Chelation Therapy for Parkinson’s Disease
Opening the Door to Gene Therapy in Parkinson’s Disease: The Need for Refinement of the Technology and Approach
Does it Matter if I Can’t Get Brand Sinemet?
Should I get a DaTscan or PET scan to confirm my diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease?
A Critical Reappraisal of the Worst Drugs in Parkinson’s Disease
Environmental Risks for PD: Manganese, Welding, Mining, and Parkinsonism
Calling for the FDA to Revise the Eight Sinemet a Day Rule
Dry Cleaning Solvents and Potential Environmental Risks for Developing Parkinson’s Disease
Maintaining the Balance: Why Parkinson’s Disease Patients Need to Understand Drug Recalls, Withdrawals, and Safety Alerts
Shining a Light on Parkinson’s Disease: Optogenetics Has a Bright Future in Research
Poor Medication Management of Parkinson's Disease During Hospital Admissions: Patients and Families Can Improve Their Hospital-Based Management
Why Are Patches and Continuous Release Technology a Big Deal to Parkinson's?
Is the PD SURG Trial Another Surge Forward for DBS Therapy?
Cycling in PD in Those Who Can’t Walk: Is it Possible?
New iPS Stem Cells for PD: What Does it Mean?
Time for Comprehensive Care Networks for PD
Is Parkinson's Disease a Prion Disease?
Parkinson's Disease Linked to Gaucher's Disease
Brain Cells Keep Time Stamps: Implications for Parkinson's Disease Therapies
Is it Safe to Have an MRI with a DBS in Place?
Take Care of Your Bones as They Are Affected in Parkinson's Disease (Even in Men)
Is it Time to Start Paying Attention to Pain Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease Patients?
Glutathione Fails to Demonstrate Significant Improvement in PD Symptoms
Keeping an Eye on Trials Important to the Parkinson's Disease Patient
Increased Risk of Melanoma in Parkinson's Disease
Finally a DBS Expert Consensus Statement Aimed at Their True Customers: The Patients
Pesticides and Environmental Exposure in Parkinson's disease: Should We Stay Away From the Stink Truck?
Is Exercise Effective Treatment and Protection Against PD?
Why are Transplant Trials Struggling to Succeed in the Treatment of PD?
Are Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Disease Modifying or Neuroprotective in PD?
Update on Gene Therapy for Parkinson's Disease